Osteo-Skeletal System

Facts & Functions

The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones, connected by a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeletal system performs vital functions for our survival — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation.

Babies are born with about 270 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time we reach adulthood, we have 206 bones. Adult male and female skeletons vary primarily to accommodate childbirth. The female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger.

Bones are fed by a network of blood vessels from the circulatory system and nerves from the nerve system.

Bone typically has a tough, dense outer layer, followed by a layer of lighter spongy bone.  Some bones contain a jelly-like bone marrow at the centre where new cells are constantly being produced.

The spine, rib cage and skull transmit the weight from the head, trunk and upper limbs down to the lower limbs at the hip joints, to maintain an upright posture.

The bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles, upper limbs and lower limbs make walking, running and other movements possible. They also protect the organs responsible for digestion, excretion and reproduction.


Bone diseases such as Osteoporosis & Osteomalacia are most common, and not only among the elderly.

Osteoporosis – results in loss of bone tissue, as bones lose calcium & become thinner.

Osteomalacia – a softening of the bones often caused by a Vitamin D deficiency, resulting from a defect in the bone-building process.

Arthritis – a collective name for more than 100 inflammatory diseases that impair joints and their surrounding structures. Arthritis can attack joints, joint capsules, the surrounding tissue, or the whole body. It usually affects joints of the neck, shoulders, hands, lower back, hips or knees.

Scoliosis – a side-to-side curve in the back or spine, often creating a pronounced “C” or “S” shape when viewed on x-ray. This condition typically manifests in adolescence.

Bone Cancer – a much rarer disease of the skeletal system. It may originate in the bones or cartilage, or another part of the body.

Bursitis – a disorder most commonly affecting the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces enabling muscles to move over bones.

The Skeletal System is susceptible to breaks, strains and fractures. While bones are meant to protect the body’s vital organs, it takes about 10 to 16 pounds of pressure to break an average bone. Bones such as the skull and femur are much tougher to break.

SoundWaves Health Clinic can scan and trace the origin of these diseases, conditions, etc. With the exception of Scoliosis, we can treat all of the above conditions in a non-invasive, non-chemical manner.The cause sometimes lies in the chromosomes, genes or DNA, but our systems will track it all the way down there, enabling treatment AND healing.

The following material is assembled from various sources freely available. It is not intended as a comprehensive study of Anatomy, Biology, Endocrinology or any other medical field.